What Is Thyroid Disease | Thyroid Gland Disorders or Disease | test
Thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland inside the neck, located in front of the trachea
(windpipe) and below the larynx (voicebox). It produces two thyroid hormones,
triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) that travel through the blood to all tissues of the
body. Thyroid hormones regulate how the body breaks down food and either uses that
energy immediately or stores it for the future. In other words, thyroid hormones regulate
body’s metabolism as well as the consumption of oxygen and the production of heat.
Pituitary glands controls how well the thyroid works by producing thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH). The bloodstream carries TSH to the thyroid gland to produce more thyroid
hormones, as needed.
Hypothyroidism | What is hypothyroidism | Hypothyroidism causes
Too little thyroid hormone from an underactive thyroid gland is called hypothyroidism. In hypothyroidism, the body’s metabolism is slowed. Several causes for this condition exist, most of which affect the thyroid gland directly, impairing its ability to make enough hormone. More rarely, there may be a pituitary gland tumor, which blocks the pituitary from producing TSH. Whether the problem is caused by the thyroid or by the pituitary gland, the result is that the thyroid is producing too few hormones, causing many physical and mental processes to become sluggish. The body consumes less oxygen and produces
less body heat.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism:
Symptoms of hypothyroidism can include:
- Poor concentration or feeling mentally “foggy”,
- Dry skin,
- Feeling cold,
- Fluid retention,
- Muscle and joint aches,
- Prolonged or excessive menstrual bleeding in women. Some common causes of hypothyroidism include:
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (an autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland).
- Thyroid hormone resistance.
- Other types of thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid), such as acute thyroiditis and postpartum thyroiditis.
Hyperthyroidism | What is hyperthyroidism | What causes hyperthyroidism
Too much thyroid hormone from an overactive thyroid gland is called hyperthyroidism. This hormone imbalance occurs in about 1 % of all women, who get hyperthyroidism more often than men. One of the most common forms of hyperthyroidism is known as Graves’
disease. This autoimmune disorder tends to run in families. The thyroid gland is
producing too much hormone in hyperthyroidism, the body develops an increased metabolic state, with many body systems developing abnormal function. In mild cases, there may not be apparent symptoms.
Symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism can include:
- Fast heart rate,
- Intolerance for heat,
- Increase in bowel movements,
- Increased sweating,
- Concentration problems,
- Unintentional weight loss,
Some of the most common causes of hyperthyroidism are:
- Graves’ disease,
- Toxic multinodular goiter,
- Thyroid nodules that overexpress thyroid hormone (known as “hot” nodules),
- Excessive iodine consumption.