Endocrine Disorders Causes | Endocrine System
Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories:
- Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormone imbalance.
- Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels. The endocrine’s feedback system helps control the balance of hormones in the bloodstream. If body has too much or too little of a certain hormone, the feedback system signals the proper gland or glands to correct the problem. A hormone imbalance may occur if this feedback system has trouble keeping the right level of hormones in the blood stream, or if body does not clear them out of the blood stream properly. Increased or decreased levels of endocrine hormone may be caused by:
- A problem with the endocrine feedback system.
- Disease condition.
- Failure of a gland to stimulate another gland to release hormones (for example, a problem with the hypothalamus can disrupt hormone production in the pituitary gland).
- A genetic disorder, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia or congenital hypothyroidism.
- Injury to an endocrine gland.
- Tumor of an endocrine gland.
Most endocrine tumors and nodules (lumps) are noncancerous. They usually do not spread to other parts of the body. However, a tumor or nodule on the gland may interfere with the gland’s hormone production.
Types of Endocrine Disorders | Endocrine System
Numerous problems can occur in the endocrine system. These can be considered as excessive or deficient hormone production. Endocrine organs are also prone to tumours (adenomas) which can over produce hormones. Some problems of the endocrine system include different types of endocrine disorders:
Diabetes mellitus: Too much sugar in the blood caused by problems with insulin production. This includes type 1 diabetes (deficiency of insulin) and type 2 diabetes (initially excessive, then deficiency of insulin).
Diabetes insipidus: The most common abnormality with the dysfunction of posterior pituitary is diabetes insipidus. This disorder is due to defects in antidiuretic hormone receptors or an inability to secrete ADH.
Hyperthyroidism: The thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, leading to weight loss, fast heart rate, sweating, and nervousness. The most common cause for an overactive thyroid is an autoimmune disorder called Grave’s disease.
Hypothyroidism: The thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, leading to fatigue, constipation, dry skin, and depression. The underactive gland can cause slowed development in children. Some types of hypothyroidism are present at birth.
Menstruation abnormalities: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), pituitary adenoma or primary ovarian failure (POF) may cause irregular menstruation or lack of menstruation.
Parathyroid problems: An enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid glands can lead to high calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia).
Pituitary adenomas: These are tumours of the pituitary gland that can make too much of a certain hormone or cause deficiencies of hormones. These tumours can be small (microadenomas) or large (macroadenomas).
Adrenal insufficiency: The adrenal gland releases too little of the hormone cortisol and sometimes, aldosterone. Addison’s disease is a type of adrenal insufficiency.
Cushing’s disease: Overproduction of a pituitary gland hormone leads to an overactive adrenal gland. A similar condition called Cushing’s syndrome may occur in people, particularly children, who take high doses of corticosteroid medications.
Gigantism (acromegaly) and other growth hormone problems: If the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a child’s bones and body parts may grow abnormally fast. If growth hormone levels are too low, a child can stop growing in height.
Hypopituitarism: The pituitary gland releases little or no hormones. It may be caused by a number of different diseases. Women with this condition may stop getting their periods.