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Signs And Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction | Treatment Drugs Choices

Signs and Symptoms in Patients Suffering From Myocardial Infarction(Heart Attack)

Signs and symptoms of myocardial infarction patients with typical MI may have the following symptoms in the days or even weeks preceding the event: Fatigue, Chest discomfort, Malaise. Typical chest pain in acute MI has the following characteristics:

  •  Intense and unremitting for 30-60 minutes.
  •  Substernal, and often radiates upto the neck, shoulder, and jaw, and down the
    left arm.
  • Usually described as a substernal pressure sensation that also may be characterized as squeezing, aching, burning, or even sharp.
  • In some patients, the symptom is epigastric, with a feeling of indigestion or of fullness and gas. Other symptoms of myocardial infarction include the following:
  • Anxiety, commonly described as a sense of impending doom.
  • Pain or discomfort in areas of the body, including the arms, left shoulder, back, neck, jaw, or stomach.
  • Light-headedness, with or without syncope.
  • Cough.
  • Nausea, with or without vomiting.
  • Profuse sweating.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Wheezing.
  • Rapid or irregular heart rate.
  • Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling.

 

Treatment And Type of Drugs of Choice Mainly Prescribed For Myocardial Infarction Patients

The primary goal of the treatment is to first open the blocked artery and restore blood flow to the heart muscle. This process is called reperfusion. As the reperfusion takes place, the patient is slowly relieved from the pain. The early reperfusion i.e. within 4-6 hours of the heart attack can not only prevent further damage to the heart but also preserves the pumping action of the heart. The damage to the pumping action of the heart develops heart failure, decreased ability to exercise, and abnormal heart rhythms.

The Drugs are given to the patients according the type of heart attack experienced there are many reason why i will never give or suggest you to take any drugs regarding this issue through google or any other websites as  because of lack of knowledge regarding medicine better consult a doctor for perfect recovery of the issue 

Its a serious issue of concern regarding life or death so my best suggestion is to leave this issue in safe hands of doctors mainly a cardiologist specialist.

Emergency agents: Emergency agents are used in the process of reperfusion of the heart muscle. These agents basically help in relieving the severe heart pain, cause
Vasodilatation to open the blocked artery, restore the oxygen supply and prevent the
further damage of the heart muscle. These agents are morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerine,
aspirin.

 

Anti-platelet agents: Anti-platelet medications prevent formation of blood clots in the arteries. In NSAID, aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme and thus prevents blood clotting by blocking the production of thromboxane A-2 by platelets, the chemical that causes platelets to clump. In addition to thromboxane A-2, platelets also produce adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which when acts on its receptor causes  clumping of the platelets. The thienopyridines, clopidogrel, block the ADP receptor thus preventing the platelets from clumping.

 

Anti-coagulants: Anti-coagulant medications prevent growth of blood clots in the arteries. Anti-coagulants such as intravenous or subcutaneous heparin, subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, and oral warfarin, prevent the formation of blood clots either by inhibiting the production of clotting factors or by interfering with the action of the clotting factors. e.g. Enoxaparin Clot-dissolving medications: Fibrinolytic or thrombolytic agents are known as clot dissolving agents used to open blocked arteries and dissolve the existing clots. Intravenous administration of clot-dissolving drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) or TNK can open upto 80% of acutely blocked coronary arteries. Drugs such as streptokinase can be used for breaking up or dissolving the clots,by converting the intrinsic plasminogen present in the fibrin clot to its active agent form plasmin.

 

β-adrenergic receptor blockers: β blockers act by decreasing the workload of the heart. Decrease in the workload decreases the demand for oxygen by the heart and limits the amount of damage to the heart muscle. Long-term administration of β-blockers following a heart attack has been shown to improve survival and reduce the risk of future heart attacks. Esmolol, Propranolol, Atenolol, Timolol.