Epilepsy Symptoms & Tests Diagnosis | Treatments And Drugs

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Epilepsy Symptoms | Signs and Symptoms Which Require Attention

Epilepsy is caused by abnormal activity in brain cells, seizures can affect any process that brain co-ordinates. Both partial and generalized seizures at the same time,
or one can precede the other. The epilepsy symptoms can last anywhere from a few seconds to 15 minutes per episode. Sometimes, symptoms occur before the seizure takes place. These include:

  •  A sudden feeling of fear or anxiousness,
  •  A feeling of being sick to your stomach,
  •  Dizziness,
  • A change in vision,
  •  A jerky movement of the arms and legs that may cause you to drop things,
  •  An out of body sensation,
  •  A headache.

Epilepsy Symptoms

 a seizure is in progress include:

  •  Losing consciousness, which is followed by confusion,
  •  Having uncontrollable muscle spasms,
  •  Drooling or frothing at the mouth,
  •  Falling,
  •  Having a strange taste in mouth,
  •  Clenching teeth,
  •  Biting of tongue,
  •  Having sudden, rapid eye movements,
  •  Making unusual noises, such as grunting,
  •  Losing control of bladder or bowel function,
  •  Having sudden mood changes.

Epilepsy FAQ

• Losing consciousness, which is followed by confusion, • Having uncontrollable muscle spasms, • Drooling or frothing at the mouth, • Falling, • Having a strange taste in mouth, • Clenching teeth, • Biting of tongue, • Having sudden, rapid eye movements, • Making unusual noises, such as grunting, • Losing control of bladder or bowel function, • Having sudden mood changes. • A sudden feeling of fear or anxiousness, • A feeling of being sick to your stomach, • Dizziness, • A change in vision, • A jerky movement of the arms and legs that may cause you to drop things, • An out of body sensation, • A headache.
Seizure is the transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal, excessive, or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Signs or symptoms may include alterations of consciousness, motor, sensory, autonomic, or psychic events. Epilepsy is a condition characterized by the occurrence of two or more seizures that are not acutely provoked by other illnesses or conditions. Medications control rather than curing the seizure disorder. Adherence to the medication regimen is important.
Spanish Word For epilepsy is "Epilepsia"
The Seahorse was the symbol of Epilepsy Society but in USA mainly a Purple Ribbon Shows Its Support.
Hindi Word For epilepsy is "मिरगी" pronounced as 'miragee'
जब्ती असामान्य, अत्यधिक, के कारण संकेतों और/या लक्षणों की क्षणिक घटना है। या मस्तिष्क में तुल्यकालिक न्यूरोनल गतिविधि। लक्षणों या लक्षणों में के परिवर्तन शामिल हो सकते हैं चेतना, मोटर, संवेदी, स्वायत्त, या मानसिक घटनाएं। मिर्गी एक शर्त है दो या दो से अधिक दौरे की घटना की विशेषता है जो तीव्रता से उत्तेजित नहीं होते हैं अन्य बीमारियां या शर्तें। जब्ती विकार को ठीक करने के बजाय दवाएं नियंत्रित करती हैं। दवा के नियम का पालन करना महत्वपूर्ण है।

Tests and Diagnosis For Epilepsy

Physical examination: Physical examination helps in the diagnosis of specific epileptic syndromes that cause abnormal findings, such as dermatologic abnormalities. In addition, patients who for years have had intractable generalized tonic-clonic seizures are likely to have suffered injuries requiring stitches. Several tests to diagnose epilepsy and determine
the cause of seizures includes

Neurological examination: A neurological examination looks at how well brain and the rest of nervous system are functioning and may test behaviour, motor abilities, mental function and other areas to diagnose condition and determine the type of epilepsy.

Blood tests: There are a number of blood tests that may be recommended to check for signs of infections, genetic conditions or other conditions like electrolyte imbalances which may be associated with seizures.

Electroencephalogram (EEG): An electroencephalography test can help to diagnose a seizure. These tests measure brain waves. Viewing brain waves during a seizure can help to diagnose the type of seizure.

Neuroimaging: Imaging scans such as a Computerized tomography (CT) scan, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Functional MRI (fMRI), Positron emission tomography (PET) or Single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) also can help by providing a clear picture of the brain. These scans allow to see abnormalities like blocked blood flow or a tumor.

Neuropsychological tests: These tests are performed to assess thinking, memory and speech skills. The test results help to determine which areas of brain are affected.

 

Treatments and Drugs For Epileptic Seizures

Note: Please Consult A Doctor ,This Blog Is Only For Education And Information Purpose Only

The majority of epileptic seizures are controlled through drug therapy, particularly anticonvulsant drugs. The type of treatment prescribed will depend on several factors
including the frequency and severity of the seizures as well as the person’s age, overall
health, and medical history. An accurate diagnosis of the type of epilepsy is also
critical to choosing the best treatment. The different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)
act by affecting one or more of these processes. Specific mechanisms of action of the AEDs include:

  •  Modulation of voltage dependent ion channels: Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, Valproic acid.
  • Enhancement of activity of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA: Phenobarbital, Benzodiazepines, Tiagabine.
  •  Suppression of excitatory neurontransmission: Lamotrigine, Felbamate.
  • Surgery: Surgery includes removal of the area of brain causing the seizures.
  • Other therapies: Vagus nerve stimulation: The vagus nerve is stimulated to reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures. This can be suitable for some people with seizures that are difficult to control with medication. Ketogenic diet: A diet very high in fat, low in protein and almost carbohydrate free. This can be effective in the treatment of difficult to control seizures in some children.

 

Primary Generalized
Tonic-Clonic
Partial*AbsenceAtypical Absence,
Myoclonic, Atonic
First-Line
Valproic acid
Lamotrigine
Topiramate
Carbamazepine
Phenytoin
Lamotrigine
Valproic acid
Valproic acid
Ethosuximide
Valproic acid
Lamotrigine
Topiramate
Alternatives
Zonisamideb
Phenytoin
Carbamazepine
Oxcarbazepine
Phenobarbital
Primidone
Felbamate
Levetiracetam**
Topiramate
Tiagabine**
Zonisamide**
Gabapentin**
Phenobarbital
Primidone
Lamotrigine
Clonazepam
Clonazepam
Felbamate
 Types of seizures Symptoms
|1. “Grand Mal” or Generalized
tonic-clonic
Unconsciousness, convulsions,
muscle rigidity.
|2. Absence Brief loss of consciousness.
Generalized seizures
(Produced by the entire brain)
3. Myoclonic Sporadic (isolated), jerking
movements.
|4. ClonicRepetitive, jerking movements
|5. TonicMuscle stiffness, rigidity.
| 6. Atonic Loss of muscle tone.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|1. Simple (awareness is retained)
| a. Simple motorJerking, muscle rigidity, spasms,
head-turning.
Focal (partial) seizures (Produced by a small area of the brain)b. Simple sensoryUnusual sensations affecting
either the vision, hearing, smell
taste, or touch.
|c. Simple psychologicalMemory or emotional
disturbances.
|2. Complex (Impairment of
awareness)
Automatisms such as lip
smacking, chewing, fidgeting,
walking and other repetitive,
involuntary but co-ordinated
movements.
|3. Partial seizure with secondary
generalization
Symptoms that are initially
associated with a preservation of
consciousness that then evolves
into a loss of consciousness and
convulsions..
Unclassified seizure1. Neonatal seizures
2. Infantile spasms

 

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Epilepsy | What Causes Epilepsy And Its Pathophysiology

Epilepsy | Classification And Epidemiology of Epileptic Seizures | FAQ

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