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Acute Kidney Failure Or Acute Renal Failure Pathophysiology 

Note: Acute Renal Failure Or Acute Kidney Failure Is Similar So Don’t Be Confused

The driving force for glomerular filtration is the pressure gradient from the glomerulus to the Bowman space.  Glomerular pressure depends primarily on renal blood flow (RBF) and is controlled by the combined resistances of renal afferent and efferent arterioles. Regardless of the cause of AKI, reductions in RBF represent a common pathologic pathway for decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The etiology of AKI consists of 3 main mechanisms: prerenal, intrinsic and obstructive. In prerenal failure, GFR is depressed by compromised renal perfusion. Tubular and glomerular function remain normal. Intrinsic renal failure includes diseases of the kidney itself, predominantly affecting the glomerulus or tubule, which are associated with the release of renal afferent vasoconstrictors. Ischemic renal injury is the most common cause of intrinsic renal failure. Patients with chronic renal failure may also present with superimposed AKI from prerenal failure and obstruction, as well as intrinsic renal disease.

Obstruction of the urinary tract initially causes an increase in tubular pressure, which The driving force for glomerular filtration is the pressure gradient from the glomerulus to the Bowman space. Glomerular pressure depends primarily on renal blood flow (RBF) and is controlled by the combined resistances of renal afferent and efferent arterioles. Regardless of the cause of AKI, reductions in RBF represent a common pathologic pathway for decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The etiology of AKI consists of 3 main mechanisms: prerenal, intrinsic and obstructive.

In prerenal failure, GFR is depressed by compromised renal perfusion. Tubular and
glomerular function remain normal. Intrinsic renal failure includes diseases of the kidney itself, predominantly affecting the glomerulus or tubule, which are associated with the release of renal afferent vasoconstrictors. Ischemic renal injury is the most common cause of intrinsic renal failure. Patients with chronic renal failure may also present with superimposed AKI from prerenal failure and obstruction, as well as intrinsic renal disease. Obstruction of the urinary tract initially causes an increase in tubular pressure, which decreases the filtration driving force. This pressure gradient soon equalizes, and
maintenance of a depressed GFR then depends on renal efferent vasoconstriction.

 

Symptoms Acute Renal Failure Or Acute Kidney Failure

Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure may include:

  • Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal,
  • Fluid retention, causing swelling in legs, ankles or feet,
  •  Drowsiness,
  •  Shortness of breath,
  •  Fatigue,
  •  Confusion,
  •  Nausea,
  •  Seizures or coma in severe cases,
  •  Chest pain or pressure.

Sometimes Acute renal failure causes no signs or symptoms and is detected through lab tests done for another reason.

Complications of Acute Renal Failure Or Acute Kidney Failure

Potential complications of acute renal failure include:

Fluid build-up: Acute renal failure may lead to a build-up of fluid in chest, which can cause shortness of breath.
Chest pain: If the lining that covers heart becomes inflamed, it may lead to chest pain. Muscle weakness: When body’s fluids and electrolytes are out of balance, muscle weakness can result. Elevated levels of potassium in blood are particularly dangerous.
Permanent kidney damage: Occasionally, Acute renal failure causes permanent loss of kidney function, or end stage renal disease.
Death: Acute renal failure can lead to loss of kidney function and, ultimately death. The risk of death is highest in people who had kidney problems before acute kidney failure.

 

Tests And Diagnosis Acute Renal Failure Or Acute Kidney Failure

Urine output measurements: The amount of urine excrete in a day may help to determine the cause of kidney failure.
Urine tests: Analyzing a sample of urine, may reveal abnormalities that suggest  kidney failure.
Blood tests: Blood sample may reveal rapidly rising levels of urea and creatinine.
Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as ultrasound and computerized tomography may be used to help any abnormalities in kidneys.
Biopsy: In certain situations, a kidney biopsy may recommend to remove a small sample of kidney tissue for lab testing.

 

 

Treatments and Drugs Prescribed In Acute Renal Failure Or Acute Kidney Failure

Treatment for Acute renal failure  involves identifying the illness or injury that
originally damaged kidneys.

Balance the amount of fluids in blood: If Acute renal failure is caused by a lack of fluids in blood, may recommend intravenous fluids. In other cases, acute renal failure may cause to have too much fluid, leading to swelling in arms and legs. In these cases, diuretics may use.
Medications to control blood potassium: If potassium is not properly filtering from blood, may require calcium, glucose or sodium polystyrene sulfonate to prevent the accumulation of high levels of potassium in blood. Too much potassium in the blood can cause dangerous arrhythmias and muscle weakness.
Medications to restore blood calcium levels: In hypocalcemia, calcium infusion is recommended.
Treatment for end-stage kidney disease: If kidneys cannot keep up with waste and fluid clearance on their own and develop complete kidney failure lead to end-stage kidney disease. At that point, dialysis or a kidney transplant is needed.
Dialysis: Dialysis artificially removes waste products and extra fluid from blood when kidneys can no longer perform normally. In hemodialysis, a machine filters waste and excess fluids from the blood. In peritoneal dialysis, a thin tube (catheter) inserted into abdomen fills abdominal cavity with a dialysis solution that absorbs waste and excess fluids. After a period of time, the dialysis solution drains from body, carrying the waste with it.
Kidney transplant: A kidney transplant involves surgically placing a healthy kidney from a donor into body. Transplanted patient may need to take medications for the rest of life to keep body from rejecting the new organ.

Prevention Acute renal failure Or Acute Kidney failure 

Acute renal failure is often difficult to predict or prevent. But may reduce risk by taking care of kidneys. Yearly physical examination include blood tests and urinalysis to monitor kidney and urinary tract health. Drink enough fluids to keep the kidneys
functioning properly. Avoid taking substances or medications that can poison or damage kidney tissues. Patients having other diseases or conditions that increase risk of acute kidney failure, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, must follow recommendations for managing these conditions. Persons at risk for chronic renal failure may need more frequent testing for kidney function and other problems that occur with declining kidney function.

Acute Renal Failure Or Kidney Failure Acute |Risk Factor Causes

Renal System.| What Is Renal System? | Kidney & Urinary System