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Diabetes Mellitus Definition & Pronunciation And Its Types | Classification


What is Diabetes Mellitus | Definition & Pronunciation Of Diabetes Mellitus 

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, in which glucose level in the blood is much
higher than normal (hyperglycemia) and hence this condition is also commonly referred to as sugar disease. The defect in this condition is that, either the pancreas does not produce
enough insulin or it produces sufficient insulin, but the cells of the body are unable to use
the insulin properly. Insulin, a hormone released from the pancreas, controls the amount of
glucose in the blood. Glucose in the bloodstream stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin allows glucose to move from the blood into the cells. Once inside the cells, glucose is converted to energy, which is used immediately, or the glucose is stored as fat or glycogen until it is needed. The levels of glucose in the blood vary normally throughout the day. They rise after a meal and return to normal within about 2 hours after eating. Once the levels of glucose in the blood return to normal, insulin production decreases. The variation in blood glucose levels is usually within a narrow range, about 70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood in healthy people. If people eat a large amount of carbohydrates, the levels may increase more. People older than 65 years tend to have slightly higher levels, especially after eating. Insulin is like a key which opens the body cell doors to allow glucose to enter. In the absence of enough insulin, glucose cannot enter the cells and remains in the blood stream in high amounts (hyperglycemia). If the body does not produce enough insulin to move the glucose into the cells, or if the cells stop responding normally to insulin, the resulting high levels of glucose in the blood and the inadequate amount of glucose in the cells together produce the symptoms and complications of diabetes.


Multitude of Mechanisms

The body’s response to blood sugar requires the co-ordination of an array of mechanisms. Failure of any one component involved in insulin regulation, secretion, uptake or breakdown can lead to the build up of glucose in the blood.

β-cells damage: Destruction or damage to the β-cells, lead to increased levels of blood glucose.


Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus | Types/Tipo Of Diabetes Mellitus

There are two major types of diabetes:

Primary and Secondary


It results from the body’s failure of insulin production by β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune mediated or idiopathic. Most of type 1 diabetes is of the immune mediated nature, in which a T-cell mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of β-cells and thus insulin. Only about 10% of all people with diabetes have type 1 disease. Onset most often occurs in childhood, but most people who have type 1 diabetes develop the disease before age 30, although it can develop later in life. The exact cause is not known but attributed to an environmental factor; possibly a viral infection or a nutritional factor during childhood or early adulthood causes the immune system to destroy the insulin producing β-cells of the pancreas. A genetic predisposition may make some people more susceptible to the environmental factor.

Type II diabetes also tends to run in families. Obesity is the chief risk factor for developing type II diabetes, and 80 to 90% of people with this disorder are overweight or obese. Because obesity causes some degree of insulin resistance, obese people need very large amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Certain disorders and drugs can affect the way the body uses insulin and can lead to type II diabetes. High levels of corticosteroids (due to Cushing disease or taking corticosteroid drugs) and pregnancy are the most common causes of altered insulin use. Diabetes also may occur in people with excess production of growth hormone (acromegaly) and in people with.

In addition, certain medications may worsen diabetes control, or “unmask” latent diabetes. This is seen most commonly when steroid medications (such as prednisone) are taken and also with medications used in the treatment of HIV infection (AIDS).


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