Site icon

Inflammatory Mediator |Table


Inflammatory Mediator | What are Inflammatory Mediator ?

Biochemical mediator released during inflammation, intensify and propagate the inflammatory response. These mediators are soluble, diffusible molecules that can act
locally and systemically. Mediators derived from plasma include complement and
complement-derived peptides and kinins. Released via the classic or alternative pathways of the complement cascade, complement-derived peptides (C3a, C3b, and C5a) increase vascular permeability, cause smooth muscle contraction, activate leukocytes, and induce mast-cell degranulation. C5a is a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes. The kinins are also important inflammatory mediators. The most
important kinin is bradykinin, which increases vascular permeability and vasodilation and, importantly, activates phospholipase A2 (PLA2) to liberate arachidonic acid (AA). Bradykinin is also a major mediator involved in the pain response. Other mediators are derived from
injured tissue cells or leukocytes recruited to the site of inflammation. Mast cells,
platelets, and basophils produce the vasoactive amines serotonin and histamine.
Histamine causes arteriolar dilation, increased capillary permeability, contraction of nonvascular smooth muscle, and eosinophil chemotaxis and can stimulate nociceptors (a sensory receptor for painful stimuli) responsible for the pain response. inflammatory mediator release is stimulated by the complement components C3a and C5a and by lysosomal proteins released from neutrophils. Histamine activity is mediated through the
activation of one of four specific histamine receptors, designated H1, H2, H3 or H4, in target cells.


Mediator Source Actions
Cell Derived:


Mast cells, basophils,


Mast cells , leukocytes
Vasodilation, increased vascular


Vasodilation, pain fever


Mast cells, basophils,


Mast cells , leukocytes
Vasodilation, increased vascular


Vasodilation, pain fever
LeukotrienesMast cells , leukocytes Increased vascular permeability,
leukocyte adhesion, and
Platelet activating
Leukocytes , mast cells.Vasodilation, increased vascular
permeability, leukocyte adhesion,
chemotaxis, degranulation ,oxidative
Reactive oxygen

Nitric oxide

Leukocytes, mast cells.

Endothelium macrophages

Macrophage, endothelial
cell, mast cells.
Killing of microbes, tissue damage.

Vascular smooth muscle relaxation,
killing microbes.

Expression of adhesion molecules,
systemic fever metabolic
abnormalities, Hypotension (shock).
ChemokinesLeukocytes activated
Chemotaxis, leukocyte activation.
Plasma Protein Derived:
Complement Plasma

Proteases activated
during coagulation
Plasma (Production Liver)

Plasma (Production Liver)
Increased vascular permeability,
smooth muscle contraction,
vasodilation, pain.

Endothelial activation, leukocyte


Most histamine-induced vascular effects are mediated by H1  receptors. H2 receptors mediate some vascular effects but are more important for their role in histamine-induced gastric secretion during inflammatory mediator process. Less is understood about the role of H3 receptors, which may be localized to the CNS. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a vasoactive mediator similar to histamine found in mast cells and platelets in the GI tract and CNS. Serotonin also increases vascular permeability, dilates capillaries, and causes contraction of nonvascular smooth muscle. In some species, including rodents and domestic ruminants, serotonin may be the predominant vasoactive amine. Cytokines, including interleukins 1–10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interferon γ (INF-γ) are produced predominantly by macrophages and lymphocytes but can be synthesized by other cell types as well.

Their role in inflammation is complex. These polypeptides modulate the activity and
function of other cells to co-ordinate and control the inflammatory response. Two of
the more important cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α, mobilize and activate
leukocytes, enhance proliferation of B and T cells and natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and
are involved in the biologic response to endotoxins. IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α mediate
the acute phase response and pyrexia that may accompany infection and can induce
systemic clinical signs, including sleep and anorexia. In the acute phase response,
interleukins stimulate the liver to synthesize acute-phase proteins, including complement
components, coagulation factors, protease inhibitors, and metal-binding proteins. By
increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in leukocytes, cytokines are also important
in the induction of PLA2. Colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSF, G-CSF, and M-CSF) are
cytokines that promote expansion of neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage
colonies in bone marrow. In chronic inflammation, cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and
TNF-α contribute to the activation of fibroblasts and osteoblasts and to the
release of enzymes such as collagenase and stromelysin that can cause cartilage and
bone resorption. Experimental evidence also suggests that cytokines stimulate synovial
cells and chondrocytes to release pain inducing mediators. Lipid-derived autacoids play important roles in the inflammatory response and are a major focus of research into new anti inflammatory drugs. These compounds include the eicosanoids such as prostaglandins, prostacyclin, leukotrienes, and thromboxane A and the modified phospholipids such as platelet activating factor (PAF). Eicosanoids are synthesized from 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids by many cells, including activated leukocytes, mast cells and platelets, and are therefore widely distributed. Hormones and other inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, bradykinin) stimulate eicosanoid production either by direct activation of PLA2, or indirectly by increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, which in turn activate
the enzyme. Cell membrane damage can also cause an increase in intracellular Ca2+

Activated PLA2 directly hydrolyses AA, which is rapidly metabolized via one of two enzyme pathways — the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway leading to the formation of prostaglandin and thromboxanes, or the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway that produces the leukotrienes.
Cyclooxygenase catalyzes the oxygenation of AA to form the cyclic endoperoxide PGG2, which is converted to the closely related PGH2. Both PGG2 and PGH2 are inherently unstable and rapidly converted to various prostaglandins,
thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and prostacyclin (PGI1). In the vascular beds of most animals,
PGE1, PGE2 and PGI1 are potent arteriolar dilators and enhance the effects of other
mediators by increasing small-vein permeability. Other prostaglandins,
including PGF2α and thromboxane, cause smooth muscle contraction and vasoconstriction. Prostaglandins sensitize nociceptors to pain-provoking mediators
such as bradykinin and histamine and, in high concentrations, can directly stimulate
sensory nerve endings. TXA2 is a potent platelet-aggregating agent involved in
thrombus formation.


Found predominately in platelets, leukocytes, and the lungs, 5-LOX
catalyzes the formation of unstable hydroxyperoxides from AA. These hydroxyperoxides are subsequently converted to peptide leukotrienes. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 5-hydroxy eicosatetranoate (5-HETE) are strong chemoattractants stimulating polymorpho nuclear leukocyte movement. LTB4 also stimulates the production of cytokines in neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils and enhances the expression of C3b receptors. Other leukotrienes facilitate the release of histamine and other autacoids from mast
cells and stimulate bronchiolar constriction and mucous secretion. In some species, leukotrienes C4 and D4 are more potent than histamine in contracting bronchial smooth
muscle Platelet activating factor (PAF) is also derived from cell membrane phospholipids
by the action of PLA2. PAF, synthesized by mast cells, platelets, neutrophils and
eosinophils, induces platelet aggregation and stimulates platelets to release
vasoactive amines and synthesize thromboxanes. PAF also increases vascular
permeability and causes neutrophils to aggregate and degranulate.
The role of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) in inflammation is well
established. NO is an important cell signaling messenger in a wide range of
physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Small amount of NO play a role in
maintaining resting vascular tone, vasodilation, and anti aggregation of
platelets. In response to certain cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1) and other inflammatory
mediators, the production of relatively large quantities of NO is stimulated. In larger
quantities, NO is a potent vasodilator, facilitates macrophage-induced cytotoxicity,
and may contribute to joint destruction in some types of arthritis.

Related Reads: Intracellular Accumulation | Calcification | Electrolytes

 Inflammation Definition | Types Of Inflammation | Etiology |Cardinal Signs

CELL INJURY | Mechanism of cell injury | Pathogenesis| Morphology

Positive Feedback Mechanism Vs Negative Feedback Mechanism| Adaptation | Homeostasis



Exit mobile version